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We have a definition for scientific symbolic framework at:

In this post we use it for a domain specific purpose, for handling a navigator, the software JvnMobileGis.

For analyzing this kind of practical application together with its source, there is a relevant approach in modeling, MDE, and the concepts CIM, PIM and PSM: Computation Independent Model, Platform Independent and Platform Specific Models. Some parts of them are domain specific (DS) and some implementation specifics (IS).

A specific framework for a navigator using symbolic analysis

We define the symbolic analysis framework for navigating in 10 levels as follows:

  1. Ontology is a set of domain specific (DS) concepts for a navigator plus implementation specific (IS) symbols.  Concepts can be regarded as non-grounded higher level symbols. Navigator concepts are the map, the objects, the feature of the object, a road etc. The implementation specific concepts are a menu, a user interface, a database, a socket etc.
  2. Epistemology is a set of transformation rules from concepts to IS symbols. There are two directions: one to develop software and map features to code and another transformation principles how symbols could be connected into concepts. Both transformation directions need some knowledge and they create new knowledge. They describe semantics of each symbol in the ontology.
  3. Paradigm is here reductionist: how to describe ontology and epistemology and the theories and methods as atomic elements. Its “competitor” is holistic approach.
  4. Methodology is a set of theories how ontology will be transformed using epistemology to information, capable of expressing knowledge. There are domain specific theories for the product, the navigator plus implementation specific theories for the software expressed as a symbolic notation.
  5. Method is any way to use the framework in practice. Some methods are for the product, the UI and some for developing software and some for analyzing it.
  6. Tool is a specific means to apply the method in practice. A tool can be any tool, which applies (here) symbolic execution or symbolic analysis, for example for simulating code. The user can work as a tool, too, in order to make something that is impossible for the computer, or something for checking what computer does correctly, or not.
  7. Activity is a human interaction intended for understanding code. The high level types of activities are a) using the product, b)  forward engineering for creating artefacts or c) reverse engineering: finding a bug, browsing code in order to understand some principles etc.
  8. Action is a piece of activity: using the product or forward or reverse engineering.
  9. Sub-action is a part of an action. Lowest sub-actions are primitives like reading an item, making a decision etc.
  10. Lowest level is practical data for the method, tool, activity, action and sub-action. In symbolic analysis practical data can be non-symbolic or symbolic. Non-symbolic data in a program can have any type of the type system of the original source code. Symbolic data can have at most any type in the ontology. It is then very much richer than the non-symbolic notation.

Using the levels 1-10 a complete conceptual framework for any programming language and any operating system and for any application area can be written. There are – as we know – limitations how to ground concepts, but we can model them in many phases using the modeling technology. After the modeling process we can in most cases sharpen our concepts into the symbolic level.

Some links


Computational semiotics is an interdisciplinary field that applies, conducts, and draws on research in logic, mathematics, the theory and practice of computation, formal and natural language studies, the cognitive sciences generally, and semiotics proper. A common theme of this work is the adoption of a sign-theoretic perspective on issues of artificial intelligence and knowledge representation. Many of its applications lie in the field of computer-human interaction (CHI) and the fundamental devices of recognition (work at IASE in California).

Computational semiotics is that branch of one,which deals with the study and application of logic,computation to formal,natural language in terms of cognition and signs.

One part of this field, known as algebraic semiotics, combines aspects of algebraic specification and social semiotics, and has been applied to user interface design and to the representation of mathematical proofs.

Computational Semiotics by Gudwin

Fig below (

Singularities captured from real world.

Gudwin describes knowlege as knowledge units (see figure above).

Computational Semiotics vs Symbol-Driven Engineering

SDE expresses phenomena using symbols. There are interpretations between symbols, expressed in predicates.

The classification of knowledge units by Gudwin is below (the origin is from Charles Peirce):

Classification of knowledge units.

First, source code fits well to the branch of the tree, which starts from the node rhematic. Second, when code is considered as sequences or using traces, then the dicent approach is relevant.  Third, when some features of the code or its assumed behavior is considered, then the approach argumentative is relevant.

Symbolic analysis is then a tuple (rhematic, dicent, argumentative).

Mastering these three branches of the knowledge tree gives possibilities to master source code.

Some links:

Executable UML, often abbreviated to xtUML or xUML, is the evolution of the Shlaer-Mellor method to UML. Executable UML graphically specifies a system using a profile of the UML. The models are testable, and can be compiled into a less abstract programming language to target a specific implementation. Executable UML supports MDA through specification of platform-independent models, and the compilation of the platform-independent models into platform-specific models.

Executable UML is used to model the domains in a system. Each domain is defined at the level of abstraction of its subject matter independent of implementation concerns. The resulting system view is composed of a set of models represented by at least the following:

  • The domain chart provides a view of the domains in the system, and the dependencies between the domains.
  • The class diagram defines the classes and class associations for a domain.
  • The statechart diagram defines the states, events, and state transitions for a class or class instance.
  • The action language defines the actions or operations that perform processing on model elements.

Shortcomings of Executable UML

UML doesn’t define semantics of a programming language. Hence, it is not complete to describe behavior of any exact system. In order to correct this shortcoming some new principles are needed. Some of them are: automata theory and symbol-driven engineering.

Automata Theory and Symbol-Driven Engineering (SDE)

Automata theory defines behavior model for corresponding code elements. Therefore, this theory background  eliminates the gap between program behavior and the corresponding model, like UML

In SDE every symbol has an automaton behind it. In order to execute those symbols an invocation Symbol:run is needed plus some specific initailizations for some specific symbols like definitions (method invocations and  object and variable definitions). See figure below.

Some links:

Thought and thinking are mental forms and processes, respectively (“thought” is both). Thinking allows beings to model the world and to represent it according to their objectives, plans, ends and desires. Words referring to similar concepts and processes include cognition, sentience, consciousness, idea, and imagination

Programming is a way of thinking and planning code. He/ske uses mental models for that. The output of programmer's thinking are symbols.

The chain of the programmer’s work is described by the theory J.S.Bruner’s theory of Enactive, iconic, symbolic representations of knowledge.

Some relevant links to describe programmer’s mental models from the cognitive approach are:

When a model is a tuple <N,E>, where N is node and E is edge. In symbol driven engineering (SDE)  the atomistic symbolic model is a tuple <S>, where S means a symbol. Because there are no edges, the associations or links should be embedded in the symbols. Traversing symbolic model gives interpretations, which can be collected into a compact parse tree or an argumentation tree in order to express model correctness or data flow in the model.

The approach of SDE is rather multidisciplinary. We can compare Symbol with an atom  in chemistry. Science is full of different kinds of symbols. They form different languages and presentations:

See : Sungchal JI. Report: Semiotics of Life: A Unified Theory of Molecular Machines, Cells, the Mind.

Erkki Laitila, PhD (2008) computer engineer (1977)