A **Turing machine** is a theoretical device that manipulates symbols contained on a strip of tape. Despite its simplicity, a Turing machine can be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm, and is particularly useful in explaining the functions of a CPU inside of a computer.

A Turing machine that is able to simulate any other Turing machine is called a Universal Turing machine (**UTM**, or simply a **universal machine**).

### Many misunderstandings of Turing machine

There are several wrong and misleading concepts considering Turing machine TM, argued by Andrew Wells[1].

The correct concept includes the facts that TM should have a finite control automaton, a register or similar to save status and an ability to read and write and a tape or similar as a memory. Many times persons define TM too specified, although its origin describes a person making computations.

### Cognitive approach for Turing machine

From the cognitive approach Turing machine is a concept to model a human making computations. It is then a simple problem solving framework with in-built rules, which model the finite control automaton [2].

There is much information relating to cognitive architectures, symbolic paradigm and how our mind works, also criticism.

### Symbolic analysis

**Symbolic analysis (SAM) is a framework, which has been built based on automata defined by the corresponding symbols**. *Together the symbols and their original semantics (command facts) build cognitive models from the source code.Â For more information, see KnowledgeWare.*

Some links:

- [1] A. Wells: Rethinking Cognitive Computation (Palgrave).
- [2[ H. Putnam: Mind, language and reality
- [3] T. Fodor: The mind doesn’t work that way.

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