From Wiki:

A language is a system for encoding and decoding information. In its most common use, the term refers to so-called “natural languages” — the forms of communication considered peculiar to humankind.

Mathematics and computer science use artificial entities called formal languages (including programming languages and markup languages, and some that are more theoretical in nature). These often take the form of character strings, produced by a combination of formal grammar and semantics of arbitrary complexity.

A programming language is a formal language endowed with semantics that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer, to perform specific tasks. Programming languages are defined using syntactic and semantic rules, to determine structure and meaning respectively.

Programming languages are used to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information, and to express algorithms precisely. Some authors restrict the term “programming language” to those languages that can express all possible algorithms; sometimes the term “computer language” is used for artificial languages that are more limited.


  1. Formal languages.
  2. Programming languages.