In order to simplify the complexity of a computer language semantics, we are approaching the concept of unified semantic for a symbolic atom and therefore for a symbolic model.

Every symbolic atom except a constant atom (*valClause*) has connections into at least one other atom. All these connections build independent responsibility chains to describe the original semantics as a symbolic model. Because the constant atom has no internal connections downwards, its function is to return itself to all of its callers.

**Terminals and nonterminals in the model**

The constant atom is equivalent to terminal in the grammar theory. All grammatical expressions from Java or other languages that are nonterminals contain the symbolic model’s bi-directional semantic chains, where the woven elements build semantic chains describing the logic of the original code (see FIGURE). This principle has been described in more detail, with some exceptions, in Chapter 6.

FIGURE The semantics of the symbolic atom.

In FIGURE atom A needs atom B for a calculation or for a method call or for satisfying any dependency. For computers, bi-directionality of links is natural, and is known as the call/return-phenomenon.[1] This bi-directional feature of any element makes a foundation for the atomistic semantic of FIGURE. Atom B responds to the caller (A) either by returning its contents (if B is a constant) or by continuing the call chain into the next element to satisfy all the dependencies. The chain can stop because of missing information, which is typical for symbolic processing, but it does not weaken the model use, because the returned element can be the answer itself building a formula like *f(A,B,…)*. This output is useful, because it still allows the code reader to skip to interpret the captured mathematical notation, even if exact alpha-numeric information cannot be obtained.

[1] *Goto* commands are the biggest exception for this feature, but they are rarely used in modern programming languages (Dijkstra, 1968).

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