The results from a proving process vary depending on the problem type and the eagerness. In familiarization, in the read-to-recall process (Burkhardt et al., 2002) the user gets a number of chunks including information about program relations (see TABLE). If the task was a troubleshooting problem, then the user loads the personal memory as economically as possible without learning unnecessary features. Then the output from the proving process is a number of matches, where contradictions have an important role. Each contradiction that cannot be explained by other matches or other contradictions are possible errors.

When planning changes, each possible place to be modified can be considered as a contradiction against the current program model, because there is a mismatch between all impacts of the planned modification against the current behavior.  As found in TABLE a proving method can be seen as a state transition table, whose state variables are initial/current knowledge, proof result and the type of the PC effort. These lead step-by-step to conclusions, to next steps either for familiarization or troubleshooting.

This section describes a computer-aided process, where the maintenance task is performed iteratively, in a systematic way, based on user actions and computations of the computer. It has the following features:

  • An iterative, gradually deepening process (Deming, 2000) from concepts via ProgramConcepts to ProgramContexts.
  • The user has total control for the simulation in order to select all the relevant program flows, e.g., ProgramContexts to be analyzed.
  • Each relevant ProgramContext is simulated to produce an output tape.

TABLE     Making conclusions based on proof results.

Type of current PC phase

Initial

knowledge

Proof result

Conclusions and remarks and possible decisions

Familiarization

Low

Finding relevant plans

Chunking relevant places

Familiarization

Perfect

No contradictions

As above, no conclusions

Familiarization

Perfect

Contradiction

A conflict. Either an error or an exception. It starts a  troubleshooting phase

Troubleshooting

Low

No contradictions

Find relevant places. Use a familiarization phase to  increase eagerness

Troubleshooting

Moderate

Contradiction

Find more information by using  familiarization if needed

Troubleshooting

Moderate

No contradictions

Continue, skip to next subtask

Troubleshooting

High

No contradictions

Continue proofing

Troubleshooting

High

A contradiction

Conclusion: Isolate the problem, fix the bug

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